Publications

Deficiency of Plasminogen Receptor, Plg-RKT, Causes Defects in Plasminogen Binding and Inflammatory Macrophage Recruitment in vivo

Miles LA, Baik N, Lighvani S, Khaldoyanidi S, Varki NM, Bai H, Mueller BM, Parmer RJ. J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Oct 7. doi: 10.1111/jth.13532. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27714956 Abstract Essentials Plg-RKT is a novel integral membrane plasminogen receptor. The functions of … Continued

Biological Roles of Glycans

Varki A. Glycobiology. 2016 Aug 24. pii: cww086. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 27558841 Abstract Simple and complex carbohydrates (glycans) have long been known to play major metabolic, structural and physical roles in biological systems. Targeted microbial binding to host glycans … Continued

Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 and MAVS Signaling Drive Interferon-β Production by Epidermal Keratinocytes during Skin Injury

Zhang LJ, Sen GL, Ward NL, Johnston A, Chun K, Chen Y, Adase C, Sanford JA, Gao N, Chensee M, Sato E, Fritz Y, Baliwag J, Williams MR, Hata T, Gallo RL. Immunity. 2016 Jul 19;45(1):119-30. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.06.021. PMID: 27438769 Abstract Type … Continued

ApoC-III inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through LDL family receptors

Gordts PL, Nock R, Son NH, Ramms B, Lew I, Gonzales JC, Thacker BE, Basu D, Lee RG, Mullick AE, Graham MJ, Goldberg IJ, Crooke RM, Witztum JL, Esko JD. J Clin Invest. 2016 Aug 1;126(8):2855-66. doi: 10.1172/JCI86610. PMID: 27400128 Abstract Hypertriglyceridemia … Continued

Evolutionary inactivation of a sialidase in group B Streptococcus

Yamaguchi M, Hirose Y, Nakata M, Uchiyama S, Yamaguchi Y, Goto K, Sumitomo T, Lewis AL, Kawabata S, Nizet V. Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 29;6:28852. doi: 10.1038/srep28852. PMID: 27352769 Abstract Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and … Continued

Expanding the 3-O-Sulfate Proteome–Enhanced Binding of Neuropilin-1 to 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modulates Its Activity

Thacker BE, Seamen E, Lawrence R, Parker MW, Xu Y, Liu J, Vander Kooi CW, Esko JD. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 Apr 15;11(4):971-80. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00897. PMID: 26731579 Abstract Binding of proteins to heparan sulfate is driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions between positively … Continued

Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics

Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Whitfield DM, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Vinogradov EV, Stupak J, Zheng B, Ohnishi M, Unemo M, Lewis LA, Taylor RE, Landig CS, Diaz S, Reed GW, Varki A, Rice PA, Ram S. PLoS Pathog. … Continued

Hepatocyte Heparan Sulfate Is Required for Adeno-Associated Virus 2 but Dispensable for Adenovirus 5 Liver Transduction In Vivo

Zaiss AK, Foley EM, Lawrence R, Schneider LS, Hoveida H, Secrest P, Catapang AB, Yamaguchi Y, Alemany R, Shayakhmetov DM, Esko JD, Herschman HR. J Virol. 2015 Oct 21;90(1):412-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01939-15. PMID: 26491162 Abstract Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) and adenovirus 5 (Ad5) … Continued

Host and pathogen hyaluronan signal through human siglec-9 to suppress neutrophil activation

Secundino I, Lizcano A, Roupé KM, Wang X, Cole JN, Olson J, Ali SR, Dahesh S, Amayreh LK, Henningham A, Varki A, Nizet V. J Mol Med (Berl). 2016 Feb;94(2):219-33. doi: 10.1007/s00109-015-1341-8. PMID: 26411873 Abstract Inhibitory CD33-related Siglec receptors regulate immune cell … Continued

Heparan Sulfate Modulates Neutrophil and Endothelial Function in Antibacterial Innate Immunity

Xu D, Olson J, Cole JN, van Wijk XM, Brinkmann V, Zychlinsky A, Nizet V, Esko JD, Chang YC. Infect Immun. 2015 Sep;83(9):3648-56. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00545-15. PMID: 26150541 Abstract Recently, we showed that endothelial heparan sulfate facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into … Continued

Sugar-coated sperm: Unraveling the functions of the mammalian sperm glycocalyx

Tecle E, Gagneux P. Mol Reprod Dev. 2015 Sep;82(9):635-50. doi: 10.1002/mrd.22500. Review. PMID: 26061344 Abstract Mammalian spermatozoa are coated with a thick glycocalyx that is assembled during sperm development, maturation, and upon contact with seminal fluid. The sperm glycocalyx is critical for … Continued

A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression

Samraj AN, Pearce OM, Läubli H, Crittenden AN, Bergfeld AK, Banda K, Gregg CJ, Bingman AE, Secrest P, Diaz SL, Varki NM, Varki A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13;112(2):542-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417508112. PMID: 25548184 Abstract A well known, … Continued

Oral streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood

Deng L, Bensing BA, Thamadilok S, Yu H, Lau K, Chen X, Ruhl S, Sullam PM, Varki A. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec 4;10(12):e1004540. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004540. PMID: 25474103 Abstract Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans … Continued

Loss of function in heparan sulfate elongation genes EXT1 and EXT 2 results in improved nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial function

Mooij HL, Cabrales P, Bernelot Moens SJ, Xu D, Udayappan SD, Tsai AG, van der Sande MA, de Groot E, Intaglietta M, Kastelein JJ, Dallinga-Thie GM, Esko JD, Stroes ES, Nieuwdorp M. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Dec 2;3(6):e001274. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001274. PMID: … Continued

Toll-like receptor 3 activation is required for normal skin barrier repair following UV damage

Borkowski AW, Kuo IH, Bernard JJ, Yoshida T, Williams MR, Hung NJ, Yu BD, Beck LA, Gallo RL. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Feb;135(2):569-78. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.354. PMID: 25118157 Abstract UV damage to the skin leads to the release of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from … Continued

Vaccinia virus binds to the scavenger receptor MARCO on the surface of keratinocytes

MacLeod DT, Nakatsuji T, Wang Z, di Nardo A, Gallo RL. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jan;135(1):142-50. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.330. PMID: 25089661 Abstract Patients with altered skin immunity, such as individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD), can have a life-threatening disruption of the epidermis known … Continued

Subterfuge and sabotage: evasion of host innate defenses by invasive gram-positive bacterial pathogens

Okumura CY, Nizet V. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2014;68:439-58. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-092412-155711. Review. PMID: 25002085 Abstract The development of a severe invasive bacterial infection in an otherwise healthy individual is one of the most striking and fascinating aspects of human medicine. A small cadre … Continued

The classical lancefield antigen of group a Streptococcus is a virulence determinant with implications for vaccine design

van Sorge NM, Cole JN, Kuipers K, Henningham A, Aziz RK, Kasirer-Friede A, Lin L, Berends ET, Davies MR, Dougan G, Zhang F, Dahesh S, Shaw L, Gin J, Cunningham M, Merriman JA, Hütter J, Lepenies B, Rooijakkers SH, Malley … Continued

Endothelial and leukocyte heparan sulfates regulate the development of allergen-induced airway remodeling in a mouse model

Ge XN, Ha SG, Rao A, Greenberg YG, Rushdi MN, Esko JD, Rao SP, Sriramarao P. Glycobiology. 2014 Aug;24(8):715-27. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwu035. PMID: 24794009 Abstract Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPGs) participate in several aspects of inflammation because of their ability to bind to … Continued

An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism

Song, H, Qi, J., Khedri, Z., Diaz, S., Yu, H., Chen, X., Varki, A., Shi, Y., Gao, G.F.: An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan … Continued

Symbol Nomenclature for Graphical Representations of Glycans

Varki, A., Cummings, R.D., Aebi, M., Packer, N.H., Seeberger, P.H., Esko, J.D., Stanley, P., Hart, G., Darvill, A., Kinoshita, T., Prestegard, J.J., Schnaar, R.L., Freeze, H.H., Martin, J.D., Bertozzi, C.R., Etzler, M.S., Frank, M., Vliegenthart, J.F., Lütteke, T., Perez, S., … Continued

Human-specific Derived Alleles of CD33 and Other Genes Protect Against Post-Reproductive Cognitive Decline

Schwarz, F., Springer, S., Altheide, T., Varki, N., Gagneux, P., and Varki, A.: Human-specific Derived Alleles of CD33 and Other Genes Protect Against Post-Reproductive Cognitive Decline. 2015. Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1517951112.

Immunomodulatory Activity of Extracellular Hsp70 Mediated Via Paired Receptors Siglec-5 and Siglec-14

Fong, J.J., Sreedhara, K., Deng, L., Varki, N., Angata, T., Liu, Q., Nizet, V. and Varki, A.: Immunomodulatory Activity of Extracellular Hsp70 Mediated Via Paired Receptors Siglec-5 and Siglec-14. EMBO J. 2015. 34:2775-2788

Human Siglec-9 Binds Hyaluronan to Regulate Neutrophil Activation but is Exploited by Bacterial Pathogen Mimicry

Secunndino, I.,Lizcano, A., Roupe, K.M., Wang, X., Cole, J.N., Olson, J., Ali, S.R., Dahesh, S., Amayreh, L.K., Henningham, A., Varki, A. and Nizet, V.: Human Siglec-9 Binds Hyaluronan to Regulate Neutrophil Activation but is Exploited by Bacterial Pathogen Mimicry. J. … Continued

Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors

Ma GS, Aznar N, Kalogriopoulos N, Midde KK, Lopez-Sanchez I, Sato E, Dunkel Y, Gallo RL, Ghosh P. Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May … Continued

Endogenous intracellular cathelicidin enhances TLR9 activation in dendritic cells and macrophages

Nakagawa Y, Gallo RL. Endogenous intracellular cathelicidin enhances TLR9 activation in dendritic cells and macrophages. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 1;194(3):1274-84. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1402388. PMID: 25548223 PMCID: PMC4297737. Abstract Cathelicidins are a gene family best known for their antimicrobial action, but the … Continued

Innate immunity. Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection

Zhang LJ, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Hata T, Bapat SP, Ramos R, Plikus MV, Gallo RL. Innate immunity. Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Science. 2015 Jan 2;347(6217):67-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1260972. PMID: 25554785 PMCID: PMC4318537. Abstract Adipocytes have been suggested to be immunologically active, … Continued

Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

Berbée JF, Boon MR, Khedoe PP, Bartelt A, Schlein C, Worthmann A, Kooijman S, Hoeke G, Mol IM, John C, Jung C, Vazirpanah N, Brouwers LP, Gordts PL, Esko JD, Hiemstra PS, Havekes LM, Scheja L, Heeren J, Rensen PC. … Continued

Siglec receptors impact mammalian lifespan by modulating oxidative stress

Schwarz F, Pearce OM, Wang X, Samraj AN, Läubli H, Garcia JO, Lin H, Fu X, Garcia-Bingman A, Secrest P, Romanoski CE, Heyser C, Glass CK, Hazen SL, Varki N, Varki A, Gagneux P. Siglec receptors impact mammalian lifespan by … Continued

Hyaluronan breakdown contributes to immune defense against group A Streptococcus.

Schommer NN, Muto J, Nizet V, Gallo RL. (2014) Hyaluronan breakdown contributes to immune defense against group A Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 289(39):26914-21. PMID: 25122767. PMCID: PMC4175332. Abstract Group A Streptococcus (GAS) commonly infects human skin and occasionally causes severe … Continued

Stable RAGE-heparan sulfate complexes are essential for signal transduction

Xu D, Young JH, Krahn JM, Song D, Corbett KD, Chazin WJ, Pedersen LC, Esko JD. (2014) Stable RAGE-heparan sulfate complexes are essential for signal transduction. ACS Chem Biol. 8(7):1611-20. PMID: 23679870. PMCID: PMC3806902. Abstract RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation … Continued

Reducing macrophage proteoglycan sulfation increases atherosclerosis and obesity through enhanced type I interferon signaling

Gordts PL, Foley EM, Lawrence R, Sinha R, Lameda-Diaz C, Deng L, Nock R, Glass CK, Erbilgin A, Lusis AJ, Witztum JL, Esko JD.  (2014) Reducing macrophage proteoglycan sulfation increases atherosclerosis and obesity through enhanced type I interferon signaling. Cell … Continued

The classical lancefield antigen of group a streptococcus is a virulence determinant with implications for vaccine design.

van Sorge NM, Cole JN, Kuipers K, Henningham A, Aziz RK, Kasirer-Friede A, Lin L, Berends ET, Davies MR, Dougan G, Zhang F, Dahesh S, Shaw L, Gin J, Cunningham M, Merriman JA, Hütter J, Lepenies B, Rooijakkers SH, Malley R, Walker MJ, Shattil SJ, Schlievert PM, Choudhury B, Nizet V. (2014) The classical lancefield antigen of group a streptococcus is a virulence determinant with … Continued

Hyaluronan digestion controls DC migration from the skin.

Muto J, Morioka Y, Yamasaki K, Kim M, Garcia A, Carlin AF, Varki A, Gallo RL. (2014) Hyaluronan digestion controls DC migration from the skin. J Clin Invest. 124(3):1309-19. PMID: 24487587; PMCID: PMC3934161 Abstract The breakdown and release of hyaluronan (HA) from the extracellular matrix has been hypothesized to act as an endogenous … Continued

Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates.

Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Chang YC, Sonnenburg JL, Ronaghy A, Yu H, Verhagen A, Nizet V, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A, Angata T. (2014) Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. FASEB J. 28(3):1280-93. PMID: 24308974; PMCID: PMC3929681   Abstract Siglecs are sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins that recognize sialoglycans … Continued

Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are polymorphic paired receptors that modulate neutrophil and amnion signaling responses to group B Streptococcus.

Ali SR, Fong JJ, Carlin AF, Busch TD, Linden R, Angata T, Areschoug T, Parast M, Varki N, Murray J, Nizet V, Varki A. (2014) Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are polymorphic paired receptors that modulate neutrophil and amnion signaling responses to … Continued

Role of macrophage sialoadhesin in host defense against the sialylated pathogen group B Streptococcus.

Chang YC, Olson J, Louie A, Crocker PR, Varki A, Nizet V. (2014) Role of macrophage sialoadhesin in host defense against the sialylated pathogen group B Streptococcus. J Mol Med (Berl). [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24788876. Abstract Several bacterial … Continued

Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function.

Thacker BE, Xu D, Lawrence R, Esko JD. (2014) Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function. Matrix Biol.35:60-72. PMID: 24361527. PMCID: PMC4039620. Abstract Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, … Continued

Demystifying heparan sulfate-protein interactions.

Xu D, Esko JD. (2014) Demystifying heparan sulfate-protein interactions. Annu Rev Biochem. 83:129-57. PMID: 24606135. Abstract Numerous proteins, including cytokines and chemokines, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, extracellular matrix proteins, and membrane receptors, bind heparin. Although they are traditionally classified as … Continued

Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo.

Chang YC, Olson J, Beasley FC, Tung C, Zhang J, Crocker PR, Varki A, Nizet V. (2014) Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 10(1):e1003846. … Continued

Heparan sulfate deficiency disrupts developmental angiogenesis and causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Zhang B, Xiao W, Qiu H, Zhang F, Moniz HA, Jaworski A, Condac E, Gutierrez-Sanchez G, Heiss C, Clugston RD, Azadi P, Greer JJ, Bergmann C, Moremen KW, Li D, Linhardt RJ, Esko JD, Wang L. (2014) Heparan sulfate deficiency … Continued

Inducing host protection in pneumococcal sepsis by preactivation of the Ashwell-Morell receptor.

Grewal PK, Aziz PV, Uchiyama S, Rubio GR, Lardone RD, Le D, Varki NM, Nizet V, Marth JD. (2013) Inducing host protection in pneumococcal sepsis by preactivation of the Ashwell-Morell receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(50):20218-23. PMID: 24284176. … Continued

Glycogenomics as a mass spectrometry-guided genome-mining method for microbial glycosylated molecules.

Kersten RD, Ziemert N, Gonzalez DJ, Duggan BM, Nizet V, Dorrestein PC, Moore BS. Glycogenomics as a mass spectrometry-guided genome-mining method for microbial glycosylated molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(47):E4407-16. PMID: 24191063; PMCID: PMC3839717 Abstract Glycosyl groups are an essential mediator of molecular interactions in cells and … Continued

Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner.

Kim MY, Muto J, Gallo RL. (2013) Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner. PLoS One. 8(8):e72421. PMID: 24058413; PMCID: PMC3751928 Abstract The release of endogenous molecules from the skin after injury has been proposed to influence inflammation. Recent studies have found that … Continued

Streptococcus pneumoniae invades erythrocytes and utilizes them to evade human innate immunity.

Yamaguchi M, Terao Y, Mori-Yamaguchi Y, Domon H, Sakaue Y, Yagi T, Nishino K, Yamaguchi A, Nizet V, Kawabata S. (2013) Streptococcus pneumoniae invades erythrocytes and utilizes them to evade human innate immunity. PLoS One. 8(10):e77282. PMID: 24194877. PMCID: PMC3806730. … Continued

EndoS2 is a unique and conserved enzyme of serotype M49 group A Streptococcus that hydrolyses N-linked glycans on IgG and α1-acid glycoprotein.

Sjögren J, Struwe WB, Cosgrave EF, Rudd PM, Stervander M, Allhorn M, Hollands A, Nizet V, Collin M. (2013) EndoS2 is a unique and conserved enzyme of serotype M49 group A Streptococcus that hydrolyses N-linked glycans on IgG and α1-acid … Continued

Enhanced T cell function in a mouse model of human glycosylation.

Buchlis G, Odorizzi P, Soto PC, Pearce OM, Hui DJ, Jordan MS, Varki A, Wherry EJ, High KA. (2013) Enhanced T cell function in a mouse model of human glycosylation. J Immunol. 191(1):228-37. PMID: 23709682; PMCID: PMC3691298 Abstract Clinical evidence for a more active immune response in humans compared with our closest hominid relative, … Continued

Loss of Siglec-14 reduces the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation.

Angata T, Ishii T, Motegi T, Oka R, Taylor RE, Soto PC, Chang YC, Secundino I, Gao CX, Ohtsubo K, Kitazume S, Nizet V, Varki A, Gemma A, Kida K, Taniguchi N. (2013) Loss of Siglec-14 reduces the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 70(17):3199-210. PMID: 23519826; PMCID: PMC3718857 Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease … Continued

Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Bladder Epithelial Cells Against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Invasion and Cytotoxicity.

Lin AE, Autran CA, Espanola SD, Bode L, Nizet V. (2014) Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Bladder Epithelial Cells Against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Invasion and Cytotoxicity. J Infect Dis. 209(3):323-4. PMID: 23990566 PMCID: PMC3883170.   Abstract The invasive pathogen Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of urinary tract infections (UTI). … Continued

Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-III regulates Siglec-F ligand formation and eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice.

Suzukawa M, Miller M, Rosenthal P, Cho JY, Doherty TA, Varki A, Broide D. (2013) Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-III regulates Siglec-F ligand formation and eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. J Immunol. 190(12):5939-48. PMID: 23677475; PMCID: PMC3679360   Abstract Sialic acid-binding, Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-F is highly expressed on mouse eosinophils and plays an important role … Continued

Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation, and epidermal organelles.

Borkowski AW, Park K, Uchida Y, Gallo RL. (2013) Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation, and epidermal organelles. J Invest Dermatol. 133(8):2031-40. PMID: 23353987. PMCID: PMC3686920. Abstract Injury to … Continued

Cell-intrinsic mechanism involving Siglec-5 associated with divergent outcomes of HIV-1 infection in human and chimpanzee CD4 T cells.

Soto PC, Karris MY, Spina CA, Richman DD, Varki A. (2013) Cell-intrinsic mechanism involving Siglec-5 associated with divergent outcomes of HIV-1 infection in human and chimpanzee CD4 T cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 91(2):261-70. PMID: 22945238; PMCID: PMC3558668 Abstract Human and chimpanzee CD4+ T cells differ markedly in expression of … Continued

Loss of β-catenin induces multifocal periosteal chondroma-like masses in mice.

Cantley L, Saunders C, Guttenberg M, Candela ME, Ohta Y, Yasuhara R, Kondo N, Sgariglia F, Asai S, Zhang X, Qin L, Hecht JT, Chen D, Yamamoto M, Toyosawa S, Dormans JP, Esko JD, Yamaguchi Y, Iwamoto M, Pacifici M, … Continued

A genetic model of substrate reduction therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis.

Lamanna WC, Lawrence R, Sarrazin S, Lameda-Diaz C, Gordts PL, Moremen KW, Esko JD. (2012) A genetic model of substrate reduction therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis. J Biol Chem. 287(43):36283-90. PMID: 22952226. PMCID: PMC3476295   Abstract Inherited defects in the ability to catabolize glycosaminoglycans result in lysosomal storage disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), causing … Continued

Inactivation of heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase accentuates neutrophil infiltration during acute inflammation in mice.

Axelsson J, Xu D, Kang BN, Nussbacher JK, Handel TM, Ley K, Sriramarao P, Esko JD. (2012) Inactivation of heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase accentuates neutrophil infiltration during acute inflammation in mice. Blood. 120(8):1742-51. PMID: 22791291. PMCID: PMC3429312 Abstract Neutrophil recruitment and extravasation … Continued

A Conserved UDP-glucose Dehydrogenase Outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus.

Cole JN, Aziz RK, Kuipers K, Timmer AM, Nizet V, van Sorge NM. (2012) A Conserved UDP-glucose Dehydrogenase Outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 194(22):6154-61. PMID: 22961854; PMCID: PMC3486382 Abstract Group A Streptococcus … Continued

Evolution of siglec-11 and siglec-16 genes in hominins.

Wang X, Mitra N, Cruz P, Deng L; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Varki N, Angata T, Green ED, Mullikin J, Hayakawa T, Varki A. (2012) Evolution of siglec-11 and siglec-16 genes in hominins. Mol Biol Evol. 29:2073-86. PMID: 22383531. PMCID: … Continued

Ultraviolet radiation damages self noncoding RNA and is detected by TLR3.

Bernard JJ, Cowing-Zitron C, Nakatsuji T, Muehleisen B, Muto J, Borkowski AW, Martinez L, Greidinger EL, Yu BD, Gallo RL. (2012) Ultraviolet radiation damages self noncoding RNA and is detected by TLR3. Nat Med. 18(8):1286-90. PMID: 22772463. PMCID: PMC3812946. Abstract … Continued

The antimicrobial protein REG3A regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation after skin injury.

Lai Y, Li D, Li C, Muehleisen B, Radek KA, Park HJ, Jiang Z, Li Z, Lei H, Quan Y, Zhang T, Wu Y, Kotol P, Morizane S, Hata TR, Iwatsuki K, Tang C, Gallo RL. (2012) The antimicrobial protein … Continued

Specific inactivation of two immunomodulatory SIGLEC genes during human evolution.

Wang X, Mitra N, Secundino I, Banda K, Cruz P, Padler-Karavani V, Verhagen A, Reid C, Lari M, Rizzi E, Balsamo C, Corti G, De Bellis G, Longo L; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Beggs W, Caramelli D, Tishkoff SA, Hayakawa … Continued

Epidermal dendritic cell function is controlled by the hyaluronan microenvironment.

Muto, J., Carlin, AF, Kim, M., Garica, A., Varki, A., Gallo, R. (2012) Epidermal dendritic cell function is controlled by the hyaluronan microenvironment. J Invest Derm. (In Press) Link to journal: http://www.nature.com/jid/index.html

Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity.

Varki A, Gagneux P. (2012) Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1253:16-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06517.x. PMID: 22524423; PMCID: PMC3357316 Abstract Sialic acids are a diverse family of monosaccharides widely expressed on all cell surfaces of vertebrates … Continued

Leukocyte inflammatory responses provoked by pneumococcal sialidase.

Chang YC, Uchiyama S, Varki A, Nizet V. (2012) Leukocyte inflammatory responses provoked by pneumococcal sialidase. MBio. 3(1). pii: e00220-11. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00220-11. PMID: 22215570; PMCID: PMC3251504 Link to journal: http://mbio.asm.org/

Human Siglec-5 inhibitory receptor and immunoglobulin A (IgA) have separate binding sites in streptococcal beta protein.

Nordström T, Movert E, Olin AI, Ali SR, Nizet V, Varki A, Areschoug T. (2011) Human Siglec-5 inhibitory receptor and immunoglobulin A (IgA) have separate binding sites in streptococcal beta protein. J Biol Chem. 286:33981-91. PMID: 21795693. PMCID: PMC3190825 Abstract … Continued

Glycosaminoglycan binding facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into central nervous systems.

Chang YC, Wang Z, Flax LA, Xu D, Esko JD, Nizet V, Baron MJ. (2011) Glycosaminoglycan binding facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into central nervous systems. PLoS Pathog. 7(6):e1002082. PMID: 21731486. PMCID: PMC3121876 Abstract Certain microbes invade brain microvascular … Continued

Heparan sulfate regulates VEGF165- and VEGF121-mediated vascular hyperpermeability.

Xu D, Fuster MM, Lawrence R, Esko JD. (2011) Heparan sulfate regulates VEGF165- and VEGF121-mediated vascular hyperpermeability. J Biol Chem. 286:737-45. PMID: 20974861. PMCID: PMC3013032. Abstract VEGF was first described as vascular permeability factor, a potent inducer of vascular leakage. … Continued

Heparan sulfate is essential for high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) signaling by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE).

Xu D, Young J, Song D, Esko JD. (2011) Heparan sulfate is essential for high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) signaling by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). J Biol Chem. 286:41736-44. PMID: 21990362. PMCID: PMC3308882. Abstract In … Continued

Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration.

Muto J, Naidu NN, Yamasaki K, Pineau N, Breton L, Gallo RL. (2011) Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration. PLoS One. 6(10):e25480. PMID: 21998662. PMCID: PMC3187761.   Abstract As C-Xyloside has been … Continued