Publications

Broad Spectrum Anti-Influenza Agents by Inhibiting Self-Association of Matrix Protein 1

Mosier PD, Chiang MJ, Lin Z, Gao Y, Althufairi B, Zhou Q, Musayev F, Safo MK, Xie H, Desai UR. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 30;6:32340. doi: 10.1038/srep32340. PMID: 27573445 Abstract The matrix protein 1 (M1) of influenza A virus (IAV) exists as … Continued

Thyroid hormone: relevance to xenotransplantation

Iwase H, Ekser B, Hara H, Ezzelarab MB, Long C, Thomson AW, Ayares D, Cooper DK. Xenotransplantation. 2016 Jul;23(4):293-9. doi: 10.1111/xen.12243. PMID: 27374212 Abstract BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that the level of serum/plasma free triiodothyronine (fT3) falls rapidly following brain … Continued

Luminal Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Exhibit Proinflammatory Effects on Epithelial Cells and Macrophages

Mitsuhashi S, Feldbrügge L, Csizmadia E, Mitsuhashi M, Robson SC, Moss AC. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Jul;22(7):1587-95. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000840. PMID: 27271497 Abstract BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles released by cells as a means of intercellular communication. They are potential novel … Continued

Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

Verespy S 3rd, Mehta AY, Afosah D, Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 7;6:24043. doi: 10.1038/srep24043. PMID: 27053426 Abstract Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although … Continued

Factor XIa inhibitors: A review of the patent literature

Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2016;26(3):323-45. doi: 10.1517/13543776.2016.1154045. Review. PMID: 26881476 Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulants are the mainstay for prevention and/or treatment of thrombotic disorders. Each clinically used anticoagulant is associated with significant adverse consequences, especially bleeding. Factor XIa (FXIa), … Continued

Allosterism-based simultaneous, dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet action: allosteric inhibitor targeting the glycoprotein Ibα-binding and heparin-binding site of thrombin

Mehta AY, Mohammed BM, Martin EJ, Brophy DF, Gailani D, Desai UR. J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Apr;14(4):828-38. doi: 10.1111/jth.13254. PMID: 26748875 Abstract BACKGROUND: Allosteric inhibition is a promising approach for developing a new group of anticoagulants with potentially reduced bleeding consequences. Recently, … Continued

CXCL1/MGSA Is a Novel Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding Chemokine: STRUCTURAL EVIDENCE FOR TWO DISTINCT NON-OVERLAPPING BINDING DOMAINS

Sepuru KM, Rajarathnam K. J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 19;291(8):4247-55. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.697888. PMID: 26721883 Abstract In humans, the chemokine CXCL1/MGSA (hCXCL1) plays fundamental and diverse roles in pathophysiology, from microbial killing to cancer progression, by orchestrating the directed migration of immune and … Continued

Recent advances in understanding xenotransplantation: implications for the clinic

Cooper DK, Bottino R. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015;11(12):1379-90. doi: 10.1586/1744666X.2015.1083861. PMID: 26548357 Abstract The results of organ and cell allotransplantation continue to improve, but the field remains limited by a lack of deceased donor organs. Xenotransplantation, for example, between pig and … Continued

A Simple Method for Discovering Druggable, Specific Glycosaminoglycan-Protein Systems. Elucidation of Key Principles from Heparin/Heparan Sulfate-Binding Proteins

Sarkar A, Desai UR. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 21;10(10):e0141127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141127. PMID: 26488293 Abstract Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) affect human physiology and pathology by modulating more than 500 proteins. GAG-protein interactions are generally assumed to be ionic and nonspecific, but specific interactions do exist. … Continued

In vitro testing of an anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, clone 2C10, in primates and pigs

Lee W, Satyananda V, Iwase H, Tanaka T, Miyagawa Y, Long C, Ayares D, Cooper DK, Hara H. Transpl Immunol. 2015 Nov;33(3):185-91. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2015.09.007. PMID: 26458513 Abstract BACKGROUND: The CD40/CD154 and CD28/B7 pathways are important in allo- and xeno-transplantation. Owing to the … Continued

Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions

Joseph PR, Mosier PD, Desai UR, Rajarathnam K. Biochem J. 2015 Nov 15;472(1):121-33. doi: 10.1042/BJ20150059. PMID: 26371375 Abstract Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as … Continued

Further evidence for sustained systemic inflammation in xenograft recipients (SIXR)

Iwase H, Ekser B, Zhou H, Liu H, Satyananda V, Humar R, Humar P, Hara H, Long C, Bhama JK, Bajona P, Wang Y, Wijkstrom M, Ayares D, Ezzelarab MB, Cooper DK. Xenotransplantation. 2015 Sep-Oct;22(5):399-405. doi: 10.1111/xen.12182. PMID: 26292982 Abstract INTRODUCTION: In … Continued

Flexible Linker Modulates Glycosaminoglycan Affinity of Decorin Binding Protein A

Morgan A, Sepuru KM, Feng W, Rajarathnam K, Wang X. Biochemistry. 2015 Aug 18;54(32):5113-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00253. PMID: 26223367 Abstract Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding adhesin found on the surface of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), the causative … Continued

Chemokine CXCL1-Mediated Neutrophil Trafficking in the Lung: Role of CXCR2 Activation

Sawant KV, Xu R, Cox R, Hawkins H, Sbrana E, Kolli D, Garofalo RP, Rajarathnam K. J Innate Immun. 2015;7(6):647-58. doi: 10.1159/000430914. PMID: 26138727 Abstract The chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 play a crucial role in host immune response by recruiting … Continued

Experimental hepatocyte xenotransplantation–a comprehensive review of the literature

Zhou H, Liu H, Ezzelarab M, Schmelzer E, Wang Y, Gerlach J, Gridelli B, Cooper DK. Xenotransplantation. 2015 Jul-Aug;22(4):239-48. doi: 10.1111/xen.12170. Review. PMID: 25950141 Abstract Hepatocyte transplantation (Tx) is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, … Continued

Four-dimensional characterization of thrombosis in a live-cell, shear-flow assay: development and application to xenotransplantation

Harris DG, Benipal PK, Cheng X, Burdorf L, Azimzadeh AM, Pierson RN 3rd. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 1;10(4):e0123015. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123015. PMID: 25830912 Abstract BACKGROUND: Porcine xenografts are a promising source of scarce transplantable organs, but stimulate intense thrombosis of human blood despite … Continued

The case for xenotransplantation

Cooper DK. Clin Transplant. 2015 Apr;29(4):288-93. doi: 10.1111/ctr.12522. PMID: 25728841 Abstract The availability of organs and cells from deceased humans for transplantation is not meeting the demand. Xenotransplantation, specifically the transplantation of organs and cells from genetically engineered pigs, could resolve this … Continued

Initial in vivo experience of pig artery patch transplantation in baboons using mutant MHC (CIITA-DN) pigs

Iwase H, Ekser B, Satyananda V, Zhou H, Hara H, Bajona P, Wijkstrom M, Bhama JK, Long C, Veroux M, Wang Y, Dai Y, Phelps C, Ayares D, Ezzelarab MB, Cooper DK. Transpl Immunol. 2015 Mar;32(2):99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2015.02.003. PMID: 25687023 Abstract BACKGROUND: … Continued

Investigation of the heparin-thrombin interaction by dynamic force spectroscopy

Wang C, Jin Y, Desai UR, Yadavalli VK. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Jun;1850(6):1099-106. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.01.016. PMID: 25647100 Abstract BACKGROUND: The interaction between heparin and thrombin is a vital step in the blood (anti)coagulation process. Unraveling the molecular basis of the interactions is … Continued

Solution NMR characterization of WT CXCL8 monomer and dimer binding to CXCR1 N-terminal domain

Joseph PR, Rajarathnam K. Protein Sci. 2015 Jan;24(1):81-92. doi: 10.1002/pro.2590. PMID: 25327289 Abstract Chemokine CXCL8 and its receptor CXCR1 are key mediators in combating infection and have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) … Continued

Synthesis and biomedical applications of xylosides

Kalita M, Quintero MV, Raman K, Tran VM, Kuberan B. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:517-28. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_40. PMID: 25325977 Abstract Xylosides modulate the biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in various cell types. A new class of xylosides called “click-xylosides” has been synthesized for … Continued

Murine models in the evaluation of heparan sulfate-based anticoagulants

Gailani D, Cheng Q, Ivanov IS. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:483-96. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_37. PMID: 25325974 Abstract Evaluating anticoagulants in animal thrombosis models is a standard component of preclinical drug testing. Mice are frequently used for these initial evaluations because a variety of thrombosis … Continued

Characterizing protein-glycosaminoglycan interactions using solution NMR spectroscopy

Joseph PR, Poluri KM, Sepuru KM, Rajarathnam K. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:325-33. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_26. PMID: 25325963 Abstract Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and, in particular, chemical shift perturbation (CSP) titration experiments are ideally suited for characterizing the binding interface of macromolecular … Continued

Using isothermal titration calorimetry to determine thermodynamic parameters of protein-glycosaminoglycan interactions

Dutta AK, Rösgen J, Rajarathnam K. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:315-24. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_25. Erratum in: Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:E1. PMID: 25325962 Abstract It has now become increasingly clear that a complete atomic description of how biomacromolecules recognize each other requires knowledge not only … Continued

A rapid, nonradioactive assay for measuring heparan sulfate C-5 epimerase activity using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry

Babu P, Victor XV, Raman K, Kuberan B. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:209-19. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_19. PMID: 25325956 Abstract Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans have important roles in anticoagulation, human development, and human diseases. HS C5-epimerase, which catalyzes the epimerization of GlcA to … Continued

Synthesis of selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis

Mencio C, Garud DR, Kuberan B, Koketsu M. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:69-78. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_8. PMID: 25325945 Abstract Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans are involved in a wide variety of developmental and pathophysiological functions. Similar to a gene knockout, the ability to … Continued

Preparation of isotope-enriched heparan sulfate precursors for structural biology studies

Victor XV, Tran VM, Kuberan B, Nguyen TK. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:43-8. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_6. PMID: 25325943 Abstract Heparan sulfate (HS) plays numerous important roles in biological systems through their interactions with a wide array of proteins. Structural biology studies of heparan sulfate … Continued

Synthesis of sulfur isotope-labeled sulfate donor, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate, for studying glycosaminoglycan functions

Mencio C, Swarup VP, Soliai M, Kuberan B. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:37-42. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_5. PMID: 25325942 Abstract The biological activity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) depends greatly on the sulfation pattern present within the GAG chain. Chemical biology of GAGs can be further advanced … Continued

Chemical modification of heparin and heparosan

Raman K, Kuberan B, Arungundram S. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:31-6. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_4. PMID: 25325941 Abstract Heparin is a potent clinically used anticoagulant. It is a heterogeneous mixture of polymers that contain a variety of sulfation patterns. However, only 3-O sulfonated heparin pentasaccharide … Continued

Production of size-defined heparosan, heparan sulfate, and heparin oligosaccharides by enzymatic depolymerization

Brown S, Kuberan B. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:21-9. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_3. PMID: 25325940 Abstract Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are most commonly isolated as large polymers from various animal origins, the functional units of which are oligosaccharides, which bind their target proteins to induce conformational changes, … Continued

Enzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate and heparin

Joice A, Raman K, Mencio C, Quintero MV, Brown S, Nguyen TK, Kuberan B. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:11-9. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_2. PMID: 25325939 Abstract Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharide chains have been shown to orchestrate distinct biological functions in several systems. Study of HS … Continued

Substantial non-electrostatic forces are needed to induce allosteric disruption of thrombin’s active site through exosite 2

Mehta AY, Desai UR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Sep 26;452(3):813-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.09.003. PMID: 25201728 Abstract Sulfated β-O4 lignin (SbO4L), a non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetic, was recently disclosed as a novel exosite 2-directed thrombin inhibitor with the capability of mimicking sulfated tyrosine sequences … Continued

A comparison of three methods of decellularization of pig corneas to reduce immunogenicity

Lee W, Miyagawa Y, Long C, Cooper DK, Hara H. Int J Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug 18;7(4):587-93. doi: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.04.01. PMID: 25161926 Abstract AIM: To investigate whether decellularization using different techniques can reduce immunogenicity of the cornea, and to explore the decellularized cornea as … Continued

Histopathologic insights into the mechanism of anti-non-Gal antibody-mediated pig cardiac xenograft rejection

Byrne GW, Azimzadeh AM, Ezzelarab M, Tazelaar HD, Ekser B, Pierson RN, Robson SC, Cooper DK, McGregor CG. Xenotransplantation. 2013 Sep-Oct;20(5):292-307. doi: 10.1111/xen.12050. Review. PMID: 25098626 Abstract The histopathology of cardiac xenograft rejection has evolved over the last 20 yr with the development … Continued

Identification of prognostic biomarkers in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and stratification by integrative multi-omics analysis

Miao R, Luo H, Zhou H, Li G, Bu D, Yang X, Zhao X, Zhang H, Liu S, Zhong Y, Zou Z, Zhao Y, Yu K, He L, Sang X, Zhong S, Huang J, Wu Y, Miksad RA, Robson SC, … Continued

Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

Namachivayam K1, Coffing HP2, Sankaranarayanan NV3, Jin Y3, MohanKumar K1, Frost BL4, Blanco CL5, Patel AL6, Meier PP7, Garzon SA8, Desai UR3,Maheshwari A9. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest … Continued

Allosteric inhibition of factor XIa. Sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics as promising anticoagulants

Al-Horani RA, Gailani D, Desai UR. Allosteric inhibition of factor XIa. Sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics as promising anticoagulants. Thromb Res. 2015 Aug;136(2):379-87. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2015.04.017. PMID: 25935648 PMCID: PMC4526391 Abstract Recent development of sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics, especially sulfated pentagalloyl glucopyranoside … Continued

Heparin interaction with a receptor on hyperglycemic dividing cells prevents intracellular hyaluronan synthesis and autophagy responses in models of type 1 diabetes

Wang A, Sankaranarayanan NV, Yanagishita M, Templeton DM, Desai UR, Sugahara K, Wang CP, Hascall VC. Heparin interaction with a receptor on hyperglycemic dividing cells prevents intracellular hyaluronan synthesis and autophagy responses in models of type 1 diabetes. Matrix Biol. … Continued

Chemoenzymatically Prepared Heparan Sulfate Containing Rare 2-O-Sulfonated Glucuronic Acid Residues

Boothello RS, Sarkar A, Tran VM, Nguyen TK, Sankaranarayanan NV, Mehta AY, Alabbas A, Brown S, Rossi A, Joice AC, Mencio CP, Quintero MV, Kuberan B, Desai UR. Chemoenzymatically Prepared Heparan Sulfate Containing Rare 2-O-Sulfonated Glucuronic Acid Residues. ACS Chem … Continued

Investigation of the heparin-thrombin interaction by dynamic force spectroscopy

Wang C, Jin Y, Desai UR, Yadavalli VK. Investigation of the heparin-thrombin interaction by dynamic force spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Jun;1850(6):1099-106. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.01.016. PMID: 25647100 PMCID: PMC4398634 Abstract BACKGROUND: The interaction between heparin and thrombin is a vital step … Continued

Plasmin regulation through allosteric, sulfated, small molecules

Al-Horani RA1, Karuturi R2, White DT3, Desai UR4. Plasmin regulation through allosteric, sulfated, small molecules. Molecules. 2015 Jan 5;20(1):608-24. doi: 10.3390/molecules20010608. PMID: 25569517 Abstract Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. … Continued

Preface. Glycosaminoglycans.

Balagurunathan K, Nakato H, Desai UR. Preface. Glycosaminoglycans. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:v. PMID: 25489643 Abstract Not available

A simple, general approach of allosteric coagulation enzyme inhibition through monosulfated hydrophobic scaffolds

Sidhu PS1, Zhou Q2, Desai UR3. A simple, general approach of allosteric coagulation enzyme inhibition through monosulfated hydrophobic scaffolds. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Dec 15;24(24):5716-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.10.059. PMID: 25453807 Abstract Allosteric inhibition of coagulation enzymes offers the advantage of … Continued

Studying glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions using capillary electrophoresis

Liang A1, Desai UR. Studying glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions using capillary electrophoresis. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:355-75. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_28. PMID: 25325965 Abstract Methods for studying interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteins have assumed considerable significance as their biological importance increases. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) … Continued

Glycosaminoglycan-protein interaction studies using fluorescence spectroscopy

Boothello RS, Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. Glycosaminoglycan-protein interaction studies using fluorescence spectroscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:335-53. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_27. PMID: 25325964 Abstract Fluorescence spectroscopy is a quantitative analytical tool that has been extensively used to provide structural and dynamical information on … Continued

Designing “high-affinity, high-specificity” glycosaminoglycan sequences through computerized modeling

Sankaranarayanan NV, Sarkar A, Desai UR, Mosier PD. Designing “high-affinity, high-specificity” glycosaminoglycan sequences through computerized modeling. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:289-314. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_24. PMID: 25325961 PMCID: PMC4452111. Abstract The prediction of high-affinity and/or high-specificity protein-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions is an inherently difficult … Continued

Synthesis of glycosaminoglycan mimetics through sulfation of polyphenols

Al-Horani RA1, Karuturi R, Verespy S 3rd, Desai UR. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycan mimetics through sulfation of polyphenols. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:49-67. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1714-3_7. PMID: 25325944 Abstract In nearly all cases of biological activity of sulfated GAGs, the sulfate group(s) are … Continued

Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin

Henry BL, Desai UR. Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin. Thromb Res. 2014 Nov;134(5):1123-9. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2014.08.024. PMID: 25242245 PMCID: … Continued

Toward a robust computational screening strategy for identifying glycosaminoglycan sequences that display high specificity for target proteins

Sankaranarayanan NV, Desai UR. Toward a robust computational screening strategy for identifying glycosaminoglycan sequences that display high specificity for target proteins. Glycobiology. 2014 Dec;24(12):1323-33. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwu077. PMID: 25049239 PMCID: PMC4296175 Abstract Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) interact with many proteins to regulate processes … Continued

Crystal structures of influenza A virus matrix protein M1: variations on a theme.

Safo MK, Musayev FN, Mosier PD, Zhou Q, Xie H, Desai UR. (2014) Crystal structures of influenza A virus matrix protein M1: variations on a theme. PMID: 25295515. PMCID: PMC4190115. Abstract Matrix protein 1 (M1) of the influenza A virus … Continued

Determinants of versican-V1 proteoglycan processing by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS5.

Foulcer SJ, Nelson CM, Quintero MV, Kuberan B, Larkin J, Dours-Zimmermann MT, Zimmermann DR, Apte SS. (2014) Determinants of versican-V1 proteoglycan processing by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS5. J Biol Chem. 289(40):27859-73. PMID: 25122765. PMCID: PMC4183820. Abstract Proteolysis of the Glu(441)-Ala(442) bond … Continued

Substantial non-electrostatic forces are needed to induce allosteric disruption of thrombin’s active site through exosite 2

Mehta AY, Desai UR. (2014) Substantial non-electrostatic forces are needed to induce allosteric disruption of thrombin’s active site through exosite 2. PMID: 25201728. PMCID: PMC4179500. Abstract Sulfated β-O4 lignin (SbO4L), a non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetic, was recently disclosed as a novel … Continued

Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin.

Henry BL, Desai UR. (2014) Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin. Thromb Res. 134(5):1123-9. PMID: 25242245. PMCID: PMC4253681. … Continued

Progress in pig-to-non-human primate transplantation models (1998-2013): a comprehensive review of the literature.

Cooper DK, Satyananda V, Ekser B, van der Windt DJ, Hara H, Ezzelarab MB, Schuurman HJ. (2014) Progress in pig-to-non-human primate transplantation models (1998-2013): a comprehensive review of the literature. Xenotransplantation. 21(5):397-419. PMID: 25176336. PMCID: PMC4176554. Abstract BACKGROUND: The pig-to-non-human … Continued

Synthetic, Non-saccharide, Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics Selectively Target Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

Patel NJ, Karuturi R, Al-Horani RA, Baranwal S, Patel J, Desai UR, Patel BB. (2014) Synthetic, Non-saccharide, Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics Selectively Target Colon Cancer Stem Cells. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Jun 26. PMID: 24968014 [Epub ahead of print] Abstract Selective targeting … Continued

Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice.

Karanth S, Tran VM, Kuberan B, Schlegel A. (2013) Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice. Dis Model Mech. 6(6):1365-77. PMID: 24057001; PMCID: PMC3820260 Abstract Lipid disorders pose therapeutic challenges. Previously we discovered that mutation of the hepatocyte β-hydroxybutyrate transporter Slc16a6a in zebrafish … Continued

The role of platelets in coagulation dysfunction in xenotransplantation, and therapeutic options.

Iwase H, Ezzelarab MB, Ekser B, Cooper DK. (2014) The role of platelets in coagulation dysfunction in xenotransplantation, and therapeutic options. Xenotransplantation. 2014 May-Jun;21(3):201-20. PMID: 24571124. Abstract Xenotransplantation could resolve the increasing discrepancy between the availability of deceased human donor … Continued

Designing Allosteric Inhibitors of Factor XIa. Lessons from the Interactions of Sulfated Pentagalloylglucopyranosides.

Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. (2014) Designing Allosteric Inhibitors of Factor XIa. Lessons from the Interactions of Sulfated Pentagalloylglucopyranosides. J Med Chem. 57(11):4805-18. PMID: 24844380. Abstract We recently introduced sulfated pentagalloylglucopyranoside (SPGG) as an allosteric inhibitor of factor XIa (FXIa) (Al-Horani … Continued

Increased soluble CD154 (CD40 ligand) levels in xenograft recipients correlate with the development of de novo anti-pig IgG antibodies

Ezzelarab MB1, Ekser B, Isse K, Iwase H, Morelli AE, Ayares D, Cooper DK. (2014) Increased soluble CD154 (CD40 ligand) levels in xenograft recipients correlate with the development of de novo anti-pig IgG antibodies. Transplantation. 97(5):502-8. PMID: 244879395 Abstract BACKGROUND: De novo anti-pig antibodies are associated with acute humoral xenograft … Continued

Factor XI as a target for antithrombotic therapy.

Bane CE Jr, Gailani D. (2014) Factor XI as a target for antithrombotic therapy. Drug Discov Today. 2014 Jun 2. pii: S1359-6446(14)00225-6. PMID: 24886766. Abstract Anticoagulants currently used in clinical practice to treat thromboembolic disorders are effective but increase the … Continued

Discovery methodology for the development of direct factor VIIa inhibitors.

Henry BL, Desai UR. (2014) Discovery methodology for the development of direct factor VIIa inhibitors. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2014 May 31:1-14. PMID: 24882057. Abstract Introduction: Heparin and warfarin have historically been the only antithrombotics available. Recently, however, newer anticoagulants … Continued

A serotonin-induced N-glycan switch regulates platelet aggregation.

Mercado CP, Quintero MV, Li Y, Singh P, Byrd AK, Talabnin K, Ishihara M, Azadi P, Rusch NJ, Kuberan B, Maroteaux L, Kilic F. (2013) A serotonin-induced N-glycan switch regulates platelet aggregation. Sci Rep. 3:2795. PMID: 24077408; PMCID: PMC3786303 Abstract Serotonin (5-HT) is a multifunctional signaling molecule that plays different roles in a concentration-dependent manner. We demonstrated … Continued

Sulfated Caffeic Acid Dehydropolymer Attenuates Elastase and Cigarette Smoke Extract-induced Emphysema in Rats: Sustained Activity and a Need of Pulmonary Delivery.

Saluja B, Li H, Desai UR, Voelkel NF, Sakagami M. (2014) Sulfated Caffeic Acid Dehydropolymer Attenuates Elastase and Cigarette Smoke Extract-induced Emphysema in Rats: Sustained Activity and a Need of Pulmonary Delivery. Lung. 2014 May 16. (In Press) PMID: 24831783. … Continued

Allosteric inhibition of human factor XIa: discovery of monosulfated benzofurans as a class of promising inhibitors.

Argade MD, Mehta AY, Sarkar A, Desai UR. (2014) Allosteric inhibition of human factor XIa: discovery of monosulfated benzofurans as a class of promising inhibitors. J Med Chem. 57(8):3559-69. PMID: 24666186. Abstract Factor XIa (fXIa) is being recognized as a … Continued

Proline substitution of dimer interface β-strand residues as a strategy for the design of functional monomeric proteins.

Joseph PR, Poluri KM, Gangavarapu P, Rajagopalan L, Raghuwanshi S, Richardson RM, Garofalo RP, Rajarathnam K. (2013) Proline substitution of dimer interface β-strand residues as a strategy for the design of functional monomeric proteins. Biophys J. 17;105(6):1491-501. PMID: 24048001; PMCID: PMC3785864 Abstract Proteins that exist in monomer-dimer equilibrium can be found in all … Continued

Targeting the GPIbα binding site of thrombin to simultaneously induce dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects.

Mehta AY, Thakkar JN, Mohammed BM, Martin EJ, Brophy DF, Kishimoto T, Desai UR. (2014) Targeting the GPIbα binding site of thrombin to simultaneously induce dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects. J Med Chem. 57(7):3030-9. PMID: 24635452. Abstract Exosite 2 of … Continued

Distribution of non-gal antigens in pig cornea: relevance to corneal xenotransplantation.

Cohen D, Miyagawa Y, Mehra R, Lee W, Isse K, Long C, Ayares DL, Cooper DK, Hara H. (2014) Distribution of non-gal antigens in pig cornea: relevance to corneal xenotransplantation. Cornea. 33:390-7. PMID: 24488129. Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this … Continued

Chemogenesis of an antiangiogenic glycosaminoglycan.

Raman K, Arungundram S, Kuberan B. (2014) Chemogenesis of an antiangiogenic glycosaminoglycan. ACS Med Chem Lett. 5(6):644-6. PMID: 24944736. PMCID: PMC4060934. Abstract In this letter we report a facile chemical conversion of heparin, a potent anticoagulant with minimal antiangiogenic activity, … Continued

Solution structure of CXCL5–a novel chemokine and adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity.

Sepuru KM, Poluri KM, Rajarathnam K. (2014) Solution structure of CXCL5–a novel chemokine and adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. PLoS One. 9(4):e93228. PMID: 24695525. PMCID: PMC3973705. Abstract The chemokine CXCL5 is selectively expressed in highly specialized cells such as … Continued

Recent Advances on Plasmin Inhibitors for the Treatment of Fibrinolysis-Related Disorders.

Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. (2014) Recent Advances on Plasmin Inhibitors for the Treatment of Fibrinolysis-Related Disorders. Med Res Rev. 2014 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/med.21315. (In Press) PMID: 24659483. Abstract Growing evidence suggests that plasmin is involved in a number of … Continued

Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

Lamm V, Hara H, Mammen A, Dhaliwal D, Cooper DK. (2014) Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 21(2):99-114. PMID: 25268248. PMCID: PMC4181387. Abstract Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders … Continued

Kidney xenotransplantation.

Cowan PJ, Cooper DK, d’Apice AJ. (2014) Kidney xenotransplantation. Kidney Int. 85(2):265-75.  PMID: 24088952 PMCID: PMC3946635. Abstract Xenotransplantation using pigs as donors offers the possibility of eliminating the chronic shortage of donor kidneys, but there are several obstacles to be overcome before this goal can be … Continued

Synthesis of fluorophore-tagged xylosides that prime glycosaminoglycan chains.

Tran VM, Kuberan B. (2014) Synthesis of fluorophore-tagged xylosides that prime glycosaminoglycan chains. Bioconjug Chem. 25(2):262-8. PMID: 24499349. PMCID: PMC3983138. Abstract Biosynthesis and functions of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are complex and remain elusive. To better understand the factors that regulate … Continued

The potential role of genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells in xenotransplantation.

Li J, Ezzelarab MB, Ayares D, Cooper DK. (2014) The potential role of genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells in xenotransplantation. Stem Cell Rev. 10(1):79-85. PMID: 24142483. PMCID: PMC3946698. Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to have regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and … Continued

Characterization of human CD39+ Th17 cells with suppressor activity and modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

Longhi MS, Moss A, Bai A, Wu Y, Huang H, Cheifetz A, Quintana FJ, Robson SC. (2014) Characterization of human CD39+ Th17 cells with suppressor activity and modulation in inflammatory bowel disease. PLoS One. 9(2):e87956. PMID: 24505337. PMCID: PMC3914873 Abstract … Continued

Synthesis and assessment of glycosaminoglycan priming activity of cluster-xylosides for potential use as proteoglycan mimetics.

Tran VM, Nguyen TK, Sorna V, Loganathan D, Kuberan B. (2013) Synthesis and assessment of glycosaminoglycan priming activity of cluster-xylosides for potential use as proteoglycan mimetics. ACS Chem Biol. 8(5):949-57. PMID: 23402705 Abstract One of the distinct structural features of many proteoglycans (PGs) is the presence of two or … Continued

Dimerized glycosaminoglycan chains increase FGF signaling during zebrafish development.

Nguyen TK, Tran VM, Sorna V, Eriksson I, Kojima A, Koketsu M, Loganathan D, Kjellén L, Dorsky RI, Chien CB, Kuberan B. (2013) Dimerized glycosaminoglycan chains increase FGF signaling during zebrafish development. ACS Chem Biol. 8(5):939-48. PMID: 23614643 Abstract Proteoglycans (PGs) modulate numerous signaling pathways during development through binding of their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains … Continued

An update on recent patents on thrombin inhibitors (2010 – 2013).

Mehta AY, Jin Y, Desai UR. (2014) An update on recent patents on thrombin inhibitors (2010 – 2013). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 24(1):47-67. PMID: 24099091. Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thromboembolic incidences have increased nearly 33% in the past decade and directly affect … Continued

Dynamic conformational switching in the chemokine ligand is essential for G-protein-coupled receptor activation.

Joseph PR, Sawant KV, Isley A, Pedroza M, Garofalo RP, Richardson RM, Rajarathnam K. (2013) Dynamic conformational switching in the chemokine ligand is essential for G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Biochem J. 456(2):241-51. PMID: 24032673   Abstract Chemokines mediate diverse functions from organogenesis to mobilizing leucocytes, and are unusual agonists for class-A GPCRs … Continued

A nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant in heparin.

Kalita M, Balivada S, Swarup VP, Mencio C, Raman K, Desai UR, Troyer D, Kuberan B. (2014) A nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant in heparin. J Am Chem Soc. 136(2):554-7. PMID: 24127748. Abstract Heparin has been … Continued

Isothermal titration calorimetry of membrane proteins – progress and challenges.

Rajarathnam K, Rösgen J. (2014) Isothermal titration calorimetry of membrane proteins – progress and challenges. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1838(1 Pt A):69-77. PMID: 23747362. Abstract Integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels, mediate diverse biological functions that … Continued

Regulation of human platelet aggregation by genetically modified pig endothelial cells and thrombin inhibition.

Iwase H, Ekser B, Hara H, Phelps C, Ayares D, Cooper DK, Ezzelarab MB. (2013) Regulation of human platelet aggregation by genetically modified pig endothelial cells and thrombin inhibition. Xenotransplantation. [Epub]. PMID: 24188473. Abstract BACKGROUND: Coagulation disorders remain barriers to successful pig-to-primate organ xenotransplantation. In vitro, we investigated the impact of … Continued

Molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan heparin binding to the chemokine CXCL1 dimer.

Poluri KM, Joseph PR, Sawant KV, Rajarathnam K. (2013) Molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan heparin binding to the chemokine CXCL1 dimer. J Biol Chem. 288(35):25143-53. PMID: 23864653; PMCID: PMC3757178. Abstract Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-bound and soluble chemokine gradients in the vasculature and extracellular matrix mediate neutrophil recruitment to the site of microbial … Continued

Sulfation patterns determine cellular internalization of heparin-like polysaccharides.

Raman K, Mencio C, Desai UR, Kuberan B. (2013) Sulfation patterns determine cellular internalization of heparin-like polysaccharides. Mol Pharm. 10(4):1442-9. PMID: 23398560; PMCID: PMC3685167 Abstract Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide that serves biologically relevant roles as an anticoagulant and anticancer agent. While it is well-known that modification of … Continued

Minimal effect of bortezomib in reducing anti-pig antibodies in human leukocyte antigen-sensitized patients: a pilot study

Hara H, Bentall A, Long C, Fang J, Andreyev O, Lunz J, Ezzelarab M, Abu-Elmagd KM, Shapiro R, Ayares D, Stegall M, Cooper DK. (2013) Minimal effect of bortezomib in reducing anti-pig antibodies in human leukocyte antigen-sensitized patients: a pilot … Continued

Human T cells upregulate CD69 after coculture with xenogeneic genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells.

Li J, Andreyev O, Chen M, Marco M, Iwase H, Long C, Ayares D, Shen Z, Cooper DK, Ezzelarab MB. (2013) Human T cells upregulate CD69 after coculture with xenogeneic genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells. Cell Immunol. 285(1-2):23-30. PMID: 24044963   Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) obtained from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knock-out pigs transgenic for … Continued

Designing allosteric regulators of thrombin. Exosite 2 features multiple subsites that can be targeted by sulfated small molecules for inducing inhibition.

Sidhu PS, Abdel Aziz MH, Sarkar A, Mehta AY, Zhou Q, Desai UR. Designing allosteric regulators of thrombin. Exosite 2 features multiple subsites that can be targeted by sulfated small molecules for inducing inhibition. (2013) J Med Chem. 27;56(12):5059-70. PMID: 23718540; PMCID: PMC3717983 Abstract We recently designed a group of novel … Continued

Biological functions of ecto-enzymes in regulating extracellular adenosine levels in neoplastic and inflammatory disease states.

Longhi MS, Robson SC, Bernstein SH, Serra S, Deaglio S. (2013) Biological functions of ecto-enzymes in regulating extracellular adenosine levels in neoplastic and inflammatory disease states. J Mol Med (Berl). 91(2):165-72. PMID: 23292173 Abstract When present in the extracellular environment, the nucleoside adenosine protects cells and tissues from excessive … Continued

New Concepts of Immune Modulation in Xenotransplantation.

Satyananda V, Hara H, Ezzelarab MB, Phelps C, Ayares D, Cooper DK. (2013) New Concepts of Immune Modulation in Xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 96(11):937-45. PMID: 23851935 Abstract The shortage of human organs for transplantation has focused research on the possibility of transplanting pig organs into humans. Many factors contribute to the … Continued

The promise of sulfated synthetic small molecules as modulators of glycosaminoglycan function.

Desai UR. (2013) The promise of sulfated synthetic small molecules as modulators of glycosaminoglycan function. Future Med Chem. 5:1363-1366. PMID: 23919545. Link to journal: http://www.future-science.com/loi/fmc

Novel low molecular weight lignins as potential anti-emphysema agents: In vitro triple inhibitory activity against elastase, oxidation and inflammation.

Saluja B, Thakkar JN, Li H, Desai UR, Sakagami M. (2013) Novel low molecular weight lignins as potential anti-emphysema agents: In vitro triple inhibitory activity against elastase, oxidation and inflammation. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 26(2):296-304 doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2012.12.009. PMID: 23280431; PMCID: PMC3581723   Abstract No molecule has been found … Continued

Chemokine CXCL1 dimer is a potent agonist for the CXCR2 receptor.

Ravindran A, Sawant KV, Sarmiento J, Navarro J, Rajarathnam K. (2013) Chemokine CXCL1 dimer is a potent agonist for the CXCR2 receptor. J Biol Chem. 288(17):12244-52. PMID: 23479735; PMCID: PMC3636908 Abstract The CXCL1/CXCR2 axis plays a crucial role in recruiting neutrophils in response to microbial infection and tissue injury, and … Continued

Real-time kinetics of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) oxidation in extracellular fluids studied by in situ protein NMR spectroscopy.

Zandarashvili L, Sahu D, Lee K, Lee YS, Singh P, Rajarathnam K, Iwahara J. (2013) Real-time kinetics of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) oxidation in extracellular fluids studied by in situ protein NMR spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 288(17):11621-7. PMID: 23447529; PMCID: PMC3636853 Abstract Some extracellular proteins are initially secreted in reduced forms … Continued

Discovery of Allosteric Modulators of Factor XIa by Targeting Hydrophobic Domains Adjacent to its Heparin-Binding Site.

Karuturi R, Al-Horani RA, Mehta SC, Gailani D, Desai UR. (2013) Discovery of Allosteric Modulators of Factor XIa by Targeting Hydrophobic Domains Adjacent to its Heparin-Binding Site. J Med Chem. PMID: 23451707. PMCID: PMC3625964 Abstract To discover promising sulfated allosteric modulators (SAMs) of glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins (GBPs), such as human … Continued

Sulfated Pentagalloylglucoside Is a Potent, Allosteric, and Selective Inhibitor of Factor XIa.

Al-Horani RA, Ponnusamy P, Mehta AY, Gailani D, Desai UR. (2013) Sulfated Pentagalloylglucoside Is a Potent, Allosteric, and Selective Inhibitor of Factor XIa. J Med Chem. 56(3):867-78. PMID: 23316863; PMCID: PMC3574227   Abstract Inhibition of factor XIa (FXIa) is a novel paradigm for developing anticoagulants without major bleeding consequences. We … Continued

On scaffold hopping: Challenges in the discovery of sulfated small molecules as mimetics of glycosaminoglycans.

Sidhu PS, Mosier PD, Zhou Q, Desai UR. (2012) On scaffold hopping: Challenges in the discovery of sulfated small molecules as mimetics of glycosaminoglycans. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. pii: S0960-894X(12)01370-4. PMID: 23164711. PMCID: PMC3525718   Abstract The design of sulfated, small, nonsaccharide … Continued

Potential factors influencing the development of thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy after genetically modified pig liver xenotransplantation.

Ekser B, Lin CC, Long C, Echeverri GJ, Hara H, Ezzelarab M, Bogdanov VY, Stolz DB, Enjyoji K, Robson SC, Ayares D, Dorling A, Cooper DK, Gridelli B. Potential factors influencing the development of thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy after genetically … Continued

Designing allosteric regulators of thrombin. Monosulfated benzofuran dimers selectively interact with arg173 of exosite II to induce inhibition

Abdel Aziz MH, Sidhu PS, Liang A, Kim JY, Mosier PD, Zhou Q, Farrell DH, Desai UR. (2012) Designing allosteric regulators of thrombin. Monosulfated benzofuran dimers selectively interact with arg173 of exosite II to induce inhibition. J Med Chem. 55(15):6888-97. … Continued

Potent direct inhibitors of factor Xa based on the tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold.

Al-Horani RA, Meta AY, Desai UR. (2012) Potent direct inhibitors of factor Xa based on the tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold. Eur J Med Chem. 54:771-83. PMID: 22770607; PMCID: PMC3408863. Abstract Direct inhibition of coagulation factor Xa (FXa) carries significant promise for developing effective … Continued

Platelet aggregation in humans and nonhuman primates: relevance to xenotransplantation.

Iwase H, Ekser B, Zhou H, Dons EM, Cooper DK, Ezzelarab MB. (2012) Platelet aggregation in humans and nonhuman primates: relevance to xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 19(4):233-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2012.00712.x. PMID: 22909136. PMCID: PMC3425958. Abstract INTRODUCTION: Platelet activation/aggregation plays a key role in … Continued

Discovery of novel sulfonated small molecules that inhibit vascular tube formation.

Raman K, Karuturi R, Swarup VP, Desai UR, Kuberan B. (2012) Discovery of novel sulfonated small molecules that inhibit vascular tube formation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 22(13):4467-70. PMCID: PMC3105149. Abstract Tumor-associated angiogenesis is a complex process that involves the interplay among … Continued

Which anti-platelet therapies might be beneficial in xenotransplantation?

Schmelzle M, Cowan PJ, Robson SC. (2011) Which anti-platelet therapies might be beneficial in xenotransplantation? Xenotransplantation. 18(2):79-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2011.00628.x. PMID: 21496115; PMCID: PMC3733105 Abstract Xenotransplantation could provide an unlimited and elective supply of grafts, once mechanisms of graft loss and … Continued

Versatile co-expression of graft-protective proteins using 2A-linked cassettes

Fisicaro N, Londrigan SL, Brady JL, Salvaris E, Nottle MB, O’Connell PJ, Robson SC, d’Apice AJ, Lew AM, Cowan PJ. (2011) Versatile co-expression of graft-protective proteins using 2A-linked cassettes. Xenotransplantation. (2):121-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2011.00631.x. PMID: 21496119. Abstract BACKGROUND: Expression of multiple … Continued

B-cell depletion extends the survival of GTKO.hCD46Tg pig heart xenografts in baboons for up to 8 months

Mohiuddin MM, Corcoran PC, Singh AK, Azimzadeh A, Hoyt RF Jr, Thomas ML, Eckhaus MA, Seavey C, Ayares D, Pierson RN 3rd, Horvath KA. (2012) B-cell depletion extends the survival of GTKO.hCD46Tg pig heart xenografts in baboons for up to 8 … Continued

Electronically Rich N-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline 3-Carboxylic Acid Esters: Concise Synthesis and Conformational Studies.

Al-Horani RA, Desai UR. (2012) Electronically Rich N-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline 3-Carboxylic Acid Esters: Concise Synthesis and Conformational Studies. Tetrahedron. 68(8):2027-2040. PMID: 22665943. PMCID: PMC3365611. Abstract Recent work in our laboratory has shown that the highly substituted, electronically rich 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (THIQ3CA) … Continued

A synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharide library reveals the novel enzymatic action of D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3a

Nguyen TK, Arungundram S, Tran VM, Raman K, Al-Mafraji K, Venot A, Boons GJ, Kuberan B.(2012) A synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharide library reveals the novel enzymatic action of D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3a. Mol Biosyst. 8(2):609-14.  PMID: 22116385. Abstract Heparan sulfate (HS) glucosaminyl … Continued

The monomer-dimer equilibrium and glycosaminoglycan interactions of chemokine CXCL8 regulate tissue-specific neutrophil recruitment.

Gangavarapu P, Rajagopalan L, Kolli D, Guerrero-Plata A, Garofalo RP, Rajarathnam K. (2012) The monomer-dimer equilibrium and glycosaminoglycan interactions of chemokine CXCL8 regulate tissue-specific neutrophil recruitment. J Leukoc Biol. 91(2):259-65. PMID: 22140266. PMCID: PMC3290428. Abstract Chemokines exert their function by … Continued

Transgenic over expression of ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 protects against murine myocardial ischemic injury.

Cai M, Huttinger ZM, He H, Zhang W, Li F, Goodman LA, Wheeler DG, Druhan LJ, Zweier JL, Dwyer KM, He G, d’Apice AJ, Robson SC, Cowan PJ, Gumina RJ. (2011) Transgenic over expression of ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 protects against … Continued

Sulfated, low molecular weight lignins inhibit a select group of heparin-binding serine proteases.

Henry BL, Thakkar JN, Liang A, Desai UR. (2012) Sulfated, low molecular weight lignins inhibit a select group of heparin-binding serine proteases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 417(1):382-6. PMID: 22155248; PMCID: PMC3259278. Abstract Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs), designed as oligomeric … Continued

Is N-sulfation just a gateway modification during heparan sulfate biosynthesis?

Raman K, Nguyen TK, Kuberan B. (2011) Is N-sulfation just a gateway modification during heparan sulfate biosynthesis? FEBS Lett. 585(21):3420-3. PMID: 21983289. Abstract Several biologically important growth factor-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions are regulated by HS sulfation patterns. However, the biogenesis of … Continued