Allosterism-based simultaneous, dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet action: allosteric inhibitor targeting the glycoprotein Ibα-binding and heparin-binding site of thrombin

Mehta AY, Mohammed BM, Martin EJ, Brophy DF, Gailani D, Desai UR. J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Apr;14(4):828-38. doi: 10.1111/jth.13254. PMID: 26748875

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Allosteric inhibition is a promising approach for developing a new group of anticoagulants with potentially reduced bleeding consequences. Recently, we designed sulfated β-O4 lignin (SbO4L) as an allosteric inhibitor that targets exosite 2 of thrombin to reduce fibrinogen cleavage through allostery and compete with glycoprotein Ibα to reduce platelet activation.

OBJECTIVE:
To assess: (i) the antithrombotic potential of a novel approach of simultaneous exosite 2-dependent allosteric inhibition of thrombin and competitive inhibition of platelet activation; and (ii) the promise of SbO4L as the first-in-class antithrombotic agent.

METHODS:
A combination of whole blood thromboelastography, hemostasis analysis, mouse arterial thrombosis models and mouse tail bleeding studies were used to assess antithrombotic potential.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
SbO4L extended the clot initiation time, and reduced maximal clot strength, platelet contractile force, and the clot elastic modulus, suggesting dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects. These effects were comparable to those observed with enoxaparin. A dose of 1 mg of SbO4L per mouse prevented occlusion in 100% of arteries, and lower doses resulted in a proportionally reduced response. Likewise, the time to occlusion increased by ~ 70% with a 0.5-mg dose in the mouse Rose Bengal thrombosis model. Finally, tail bleeding studies demonstrated that SbO4L does not increase bleeding propensity. In comparison, a 0.3-mg dose of enoxaparin increased the bleeding time and blood volume loss. Overall, this study highlights the promise of the allosteric inhibition approach, and presents SbO4L as a novel anticoagulant with potentially reduced bleeding side effects.