Determinants of versican-V1 proteoglycan processing by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS5

Foulcer SJ, Nelson CM, Quintero MV, Kuberan B, Larkin J, Dours-Zimmermann MT, Zimmermann DR, Apte SS. (2014) Determinants of versican-V1 proteoglycan processing by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS5. J Biol Chem. 289(40):27859-73. PMID: 25122765. PMCID: PMC4183820.

Abstract
Proteolysis of the Glu(441)-Ala(442) bond in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) β domain of the versican-V1 variant by a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS) proteases is required for proper embryo morphogenesis. However, the processing mechanism and the possibility of additional ADAMTS-cleaved processing sites are unknown. We demonstrate here that if Glu(441) is mutated, ADAMTS5 cleaves inefficiently at a proximate upstream site but normally does not cleave elsewhere within the GAGβ domain. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) modification of versican is a prerequisite for cleavage at the Glu(441)-Ala(442) site, as demonstrated by reduced processing of CS-deficient or chondroitinase ABC-treated versican-V1. Site-directed mutagenesis identified the N-terminal CS attachment sites Ser(507) and Ser(525) as essential for processing of the Glu(441)-Ala(442) bond by ADAMTS5. A construct including only these two GAG chains, but not downstream GAG attachment sites, was cleaved efficiently. Therefore, CS chain attachment to Ser(507) and Ser(525) is necessary and sufficient for versican proteolysis by ADAMTS5. Mutagenesis of Glu(441) and an antibody to a peptide spanning Thr(432)-Gly(445) (i.e. containing the scissile bond) reduced versican-V1 processing. ADAMTS5 lacking the C-terminal ancillary domain did not cleave versican, and an ADAMTS5 ancillary domain construct bound versican-V1 via the CS chains. We conclude that docking of ADAMTS5 with two N-terminal GAG chains of versican-V1 via its ancillary domain is required for versican processing at Glu(441)-Ala(442). V1 proteolysis by ADAMTS1 demonstrated a similar requirement for the N-terminal GAG chains and Glu(441). Therefore, versican cleavage can be inhibited substantially by mutation of Glu(441), Ser(507), and Ser(525) or by an antibody to the region of the scissile bond.

© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

KEYWORDS: ADAMTS; Aggrecanase; Blocking Antibody; Chondroitin Sulfate; Extracellular Matrix; Glycosaminoglycan; Metalloprotease; Proteoglycan; Proteolytic Enzyme; Versican.

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