Integrated Proteomic and Glycoproteomic Analyses of Prostate Cancer Cells Reveal Glycoprotein Alteration in Protein Abundance and Glycosylation

Shah P, Wang X, Yang W, Toghi Eshghi S, Sun S, Hoti N, Chen L, Yang S, Pasay J, Rubin A, Zhang H. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015 Oct;14(10):2753-63. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M115.047928. PMID: 26256267

Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the U.S. and worldwide, and androgen-deprivation therapy remains the principal treatment for patients. Although a majority of patients initially respond to androgen-deprivation therapy, most will eventually develop castration resistance. An increased understanding of the mechanisms that underline the pathogenesis of castration resistance is therefore needed to develop novel therapeutics. LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines are models for androgen-dependence and androgen-independence, respectively. Herein, we report the comparative analysis of these two prostate cancer cell lines using integrated global proteomics and glycoproteomics. Global proteome profiling of the cell lines using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and two- dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) led to the quantification of 8063 proteins. To analyze the glycoproteins, glycosite-containing peptides were isolated from the same iTRAQ-labeled peptides from the cell lines using solid phase extraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the 1810 unique N-linked glycosite-containing peptides from 653 identified N-glycoproteins, 176 glycoproteins were observed to be different between the two cell lines. A majority of the altered glycoproteins were also observed with changes in their global protein expression levels. However, alterations in 21 differentially expressed glycoproteins showed no change at the protein abundance level, indicating that the glycosylation site occupancy was different between the two cell lines. To determine the glycosylation heterogeneity at specific glycosylation sites, we further identified and quantified 1145 N-linked glycopeptides with attached glycans in the same iTRAQ-labeled samples. These intact glycopeptides contained 67 glycan compositions and showed increased fucosylation in PC3 cells in several of the examined glycosylation sites. The increase in fucosylation could be caused by the detected changes in enzymes belonging to the glycan biosynthesis pathways of protein fucosylation observed in our proteomic analysis. The altered protein fucosylation forms have great potential in aiding our understanding of castration resistance and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches and specific detection strategies for prostate cancer.